In an effort to rid himself of the threat that an Aleramici pretender might launch an invasion and attempt to seize Thessaloniki in the future, Andronikos married Yolande of Montferrat in 1284, bringing her dynastic claims to Thessaloniki into his own family line. [1] On John IV's eleventh birthday, 25 December 1261, the boy was deposed, blinded and confined to a monastery. [24], In the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, one of the most pressing threats to the new Ottoman regime was the possibility that one of Constantine XI's relatives would secure support and return to reclaim the empire. [69] John II even petitioned the Papacy to recognize his claims to Thessaloniki and to the empire, and to help him conquer them. [120] The presence of double-headed eagle symbols in the Spirito Santo church has been used as an argument in the past, but this symbol was not unique to the Palaiologoi, being used as a symbol by other families as well (both Byzantine and Western). Read "Bibliographische Notizen und Mitteilungen, Byzantinische Zeitschrift" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at … [68] Byzantine fears of Latinization became true; Theodore converted to Catholicism and on his visits to Constantinople, Theodore schocked the Byzantines with his shaven face and Western customs. [35] From the 1480s onwards, Andreas also claimed the title Imperator Constantinopolitanus ('Emperor of Constantinople'). [63], The Byzantine aristocracy were less than eager of sending one of Andronikos II's sons to claim Montferrat. Some reports said that it was due to poisoning after he'd attended a banquet in one of his subject's palaces outside Constantinople. [53][54] Carlo died in 1908 and his only child, his daughter Maria Maddalena, died in 1933. [37] Whether he had any children is uncertain. Even in this state, the empire, famous for its frequent civil wars, was unable to stay united. [135] Ultimately, the delegation's search was in vain and they found no living embodiments of their lost empire. Constantine XI Dragases Palaiologos, Latinized as Palaeologus (Κωνσταντῖνος ΙΑ' Δραγάσης Παλαιολόγος, Kōnstantinos XI Dragasēs Palaiologos; 8 February 1405 – 29 May 1453) was the last reigning Byzantine Emperor, ruling as a member of the Palaiologos dynasty from 1449 to his death in battle at the fall of Constantinople in 1453. 1471-72", "Crusading and Matrimony in the Dynastic Policies of Montferrat and Savoy", "Surviving Exile: Byzantine Families and the Serenissima 1453–1600", "Organo di informazione del Circolo Culturale "I Marchesi del Monferrato" "in attesa di registrazione in Tribunale, "Sophia of Montferrat, or The History of One Face", "A Worthless Prince? As a result, many Byzantine refugees who fled to Western Europe in the aftermath of Constantinople's fall possessed the name and in order to earn prestige, some fabricated closer links to the imperial family. Following this, Manuel II was firmly established as John V's successor, becoming senior emperor upon John's death in 1391. Search Elsewhere ArchiveGrid Search DPLA Search. Nevertheless, Constantine's actions during the Fall of Constantinople and his death fighting the Turks redeemed the popular view of the Palaiologan dynasty. [46] Thus, the male line of the imperial branch of the House of Palaiologos probably went extinct at some point in the early 16th century. John V retook the throne in 1379 but reached an agreement with Andronikos in 1381, wherein Andronikos was to succeed him as emperor, passing over Manuel. He is not only remembered for being the last Byzantine Emperor who put up a brave last stand against the Ottomans, but also for his last speech to his officers and allies before the Fall of Constantinople on May 29, 1453 by Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II. [115] This family history derives mainly from oral tradition, with only a handful of documents possibly verifying parts of it as true. [36], Andreas died poor in Rome in 1502. Andreas Palaeologus in Rome, 1465-1502", "El fin de Constantinopla y las supuestas herencias nobiliarias bizantinas", "Su alcune discendenze moderne dei Paleologi di Bisanzio", "The Palaiologos Family After 1453: The Destiny of an Imperial Family", Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Prosopographisches Lexikon der Palaiologenzeit, "Les premiers Paléologues. [79] The refugees were helped in that many in Western Europe would have been unaware of the intricacies of Byzantine naming customs; to Western Europeans, the name Palaiologos meant the imperial dynasty. The repeated attempts by the emperors to reunite the Greek Orthodox Church with the Roman Catholic Church, and thus place the Byzantine church in submission under the Papacy, was viewed as heresy and treason. Their genealogy mainly derives from the tombstone of Theodore Paleologus (d. 1636), which lists Theodore's male-line ancestors five generations back, reaching Thomas. [11] Once news of the act, the blinding of not only the legitimate emperor, but an underage boy, got out, the Patriarch of Constantinople, Arsenios Autoreianos, excommunicated Michael. [78], It is possible that many of the modern people who bear the name are descended from wealthy Greeks in the Ottoman period, who commonly assumed Byzantine surnames and claimed descent from the famous noble houses of their Byzantine past. [56], The marriage of Zoe/Sophia (Thomas's second daughter) to Ivan III of Moscow served to strengthen Moscow's claim to be the "Third Rome", the ideological and spiritual successor to the Byzantine Empire. Thomas Palaiologos was the youngest surviving son of the Byzantine Emperor Manuel II Palaiologos and his wife Helena Dragaš. Palaiologos-Wikipedia. Supposedly, he is to have stayed in Casalsottano, a hamlet of the Italian comune San Mauro Cilento, in a 15th-century building commonly referred to as the Palazzo ("the palace"). [1] The etymology of their family name was believed to be "ragman" by Soviet-American Byzantinist Alexander Kazhdan,[3] possibly referencing humble origins,[1] whereas the French Byzantinist Jean-François Vannier believes the correct etymology to be "antique collector". Murad II's young son and successor, Mehmed II, who became sultan in 1451, was obsessed with the idea of conquering Constantinople. [80] Numerous people with the last name Paleologus are recorded in Venice in the 15th and 16th centuries, many serving as stratioti (mercenary light-armed cavalrymen of Greek or Albanian origin). For the last Byzantine emperor, sometimes numbered this way, see Constantine XI Palaiologos. On account of his young age, Theodore was exiled from Pesaro rather than executed. [20] In an effort to extort money from Mehmed, Constantine implicitly threatened to release Orhan Çelebi, Mehmed's cousin and the only other known living member of the Ottoman dynasty (and as such a potential rival to Mehed), who was held prisoner in Constantinople. In 1478, Theodore travelled to Venice with his father, Paul, and became a stratiote. The Montferrat cadet branch (descendants of Theodore, son of Emperor Andronikos II) is not shown. [97] In 1599, he entered into the service of Henry Clinton, the Earl of Lincoln, in England. [87] Because people with the name live throughout the world and might not even be related in the first place, creating an all-encompassing modern Palaiologos genealogy is next to impossible. Constantine XI Palaiologos was the last Christian Emperor of Constantinople and Byzantium. [1], In contrast to these ancient and prestigious origin stories, the Palaiologoi probably actually originated relatively late in Anatolia, possibly in the Anatolic Theme. [119] A 1489 census of San Mauro Cilento records no inhabitants with Byzantine surnames, though records a widow and daughter of "Quondam Princi de Rogerio Greco", someone subsequent censuses make clear left no further descendants. [38], In order to conserve space, the family tree only displays people of male-line descent who survived until adulthood (with the exception of co-emperor Andronikos V Palaiologos, who died a child). [87][88] Some might be genuine descendants of the imperial family as several of the imperial Palaiologoi are recorded as having had illegitimate children; for instance, Theodore II, Despot of the Morea, is known to have had several illegitimate children. [44] He is last attested in the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 1520–1566)[45] and is not believed to have had children of his own. John V was initially victorious, imprisoning and disinheriting Andronikos IV and appointing a younger son, Manuel II Palaiologos, as his successor instead. The Byzantine Empire had fallen and the rulers of the Morea, Thomas and Demetrios, appeared more interested in their own rivalry than in organizing resistance against the Ottomans. The famous Ivan the Terrible (r. 1547–1575), Russia's first Tsar, was Sophia's grandson. In 1495, Theodore partook in a siege of Novara and also partook in later battles in Savona and Cephalonia. It had long been under the Frankish principality of 'Achaia' Constantine was crowned Emperor January 6, 1449 AD succeeding his brother. Theodora Palaiologina Angelina Kantakouzene, Great Martyr, the Emperor Blessed Constantine XI Paleologos, Georgios Frantzes, Ioannes A. Melisseides, Rita Zavolea Melisseidou, " Ealo I Polis, To Chronico tes halose tes Konstantinoupoles " ( Constantinople has Fallen. A 1463 document supposedly signed by King Ferdinand I of Aragon records the granting of some lands in the vicinity of San Mauro to Rogerio, son of "illustrissimi Thomae Palaeologi dispoti Moreae". [55], Lazar Branković's third daughter, Jerina, married Gjon Kastrioti II, the son of Albanian national hero Skanderbeg. Despite the foreign and domestic difficulties during his reign, which culminated in the fall of Constantinople and of the Byzantine Empire, contemporary sources generally speak respectfully of the Emperor Constantine. In the eyes of the Orthodox church, Constantine's death sanctified him and he died a hero. Allatius gives the sons of Thomas as "Andrea, Manuele and Ioanne". Παλαιολόγοι, female version Palaiologina; Greek: Παλαιολογίνα), also found in English-language literature as Palaeologus or Palaeologue, was a Byzantine Greek family that rose to nobility and produced the last and longest-ruling dynasty of the Byzantine Empire. [52] The change in title might be attributable to the family being the senior heirs of Thomas Palaiologos, whose wife had been the heiress of the last Prince of Achaea. According to the genealogies, Rogerio would have been born about 1430 and was supposedly sent to Alfonso the Magnanimous of Aragon and Naples as a hostage to guarantee some treaty with the Byzantines. [115], Another family which claims to descend from the old imperial dynasty are the Paleologu of Romania, claiming to be the descendants of an otherwise unattested son of Theodore II Palaiologos, Despot of the Morea, called Emanuel Petrus (Manuel Petros in Greek). Some even believed that Constantine XI would return to rescue them, that he wasn't actually dead but merely asleep, awaiting a call from the heavens to return and restore Christian control over Constantinople. [17] John VIII, aided by Constantine, successfully repulsed this attack and Demetrios was briefly imprisoned as punishment. In 1253, Emperor John III Doukas Vatatzes accused him of plotting against the throne, though Michael escaped the accusation without punishment following a trial by ordeal of holding a red-hot iron. Constantine, with some 8… 1 Constantine XI Palaiologos 1.1 Background 2 Titles 2.1 Emperor of the Byzantines 2.2 Despot of the Morea 3 Downfall 3.1 Death Constantine XI Palaiaologos is revered as one of the greatest Roman emperors in history. He was denied the traditional funeral pomps of an Orthodox Emperor. Michael VIII succeeded in a union at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, which formally reunited the churches after more than two centuries of schism. [1], When Andronikos III died in 1341, his underage son John V Palaiologos inherited the throne. Emperors are indicated with bold text and women are indicated with italics. At the Council of Florence in 1439, Emperor John VIII reaffirmed the Union in the light of imminent Turkish attacks on what little remained of his empire. [94], In 1578, the members of the family living in Pesaro were embroiled in a scandal as brothers Leonidas and Scipione Paleologus, and their nephew Theodore, were arrested for attempted murder. Although Andronikos III was ultimately victorious and Andronikos II was deposed, the empire was damaged economically and for the first time, foreign states such as Bulgaria and Serbia had appeared as significant regulating factors in imperial dynastic disputes (joining opposite sides of the civil war). άς/The Marble-Petrified King (music/video) on, Timeline of Orthodoxy in Greece (1204–1453), Eastern Orthodox Christians from the Byzantine Empire, Articles containing Ancient Greek-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2014, Commons category without a link on Wikidata, WorldHeritage articles with VIAF identifiers, 21. [96] Following his exile, Theodore established himself as an assassin and appears to have garnered an impressive reputation. [102] Theodore left Barbados to work as a privateer, serving aboard a ship called Charles II, and died at A Coruña, Spain in 1693. [88], The Paleologus family in Pesaro, attested from the early 16th century onwards, claimed descent from 'John Palaiologos', a purported third son of Thomas Palaiologos. [1], In the 12th century, the Palaiologoi are mainly recorded as members of the military aristocracy, not occupying any administrative political offices. Achetez neuf ou d'occasion [13] Bayezid's siege lasted for more than a decade, with Western aid through the Crusade of Nicopolis (1396) failing to stop the sultan. His stay in Casalsottano is said to have attracted Byzantine refugees of other families, such as the Notaras and Komnenoi, to the hamlet in the aftermath of Constantinople's fall, and together they supposedly erected the Spirito Santo church, which still stands today. The situation was so dire that Manuel left Constantinople to travel around Western Europe asking for further aid against the Ottomans, visiting Italy, France and England. [133], Beyond Constantine's martyrdom, the Palaiologos dynasty had a lasting impact on the Greeks throughout the centuries of Ottoman rule, having been the last family to govern independent Greek lands. Dotted lines indicate illegitimate offsprings. 236 relations. Andronikos III secured the support of a significant number of the aristocracy and a period of civil war, not ended until 1328, ensued. His only child, his daughter Helena, never married the sultan nor entered the sultan's harem, possibly because the sultan feared that she would poison him. His son Ferdinand Paleologus, escaping the war, settled on the recently colonized island of Barbados in the Caribbean, where he became known as the "Greek prince from Cornwall" and owned a cotton or sugar plantation. Noté /5. In 1453, when Constantinople fell to the Ottoman Turks, he was last seen fighting at the city walls, but the actual circumstances of his death have remained surrounded in myth. A little less than five years later in 1453 AD he was killed during the final assaults by the Turkish Sultan, Mehmed II on Constantinople. Additionally, they continued to style themselves as despots of Epirus until the 17th century, when they instead began to title themselves as princes of Achaea. [79] Born in 1452,[109] and probably originally from Mystras in the Morea,[79] Theodore was originally a debt collector for the Ottomans in the Morea. George served as the doux of Dyrrhachium in the reign of Alexios I and was accorded the title of kouropalates. John IV, the last representative of the imperial Laskaris dynasty, was pushed aside in order to consolidate the Palaiologos family on the throne. [8], After John III's death in 1254, Michael briefly took service with the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, frequent enemies of the empire, and from 1256 to 1258 he was the commander of the Christian mercenaries fighting for the Seljuk Sultan Kaykaus II. [12] The blinding of John IV was a stain on the Palaiologan dynasty. Demetrios surrendered to the Ottomans without a fight and Thomas escaped into exile. [60], Michael VIII succeeded in achieving a union of the Catholic and Orthodox churches at the Second Council of Lyons in 1274, legitimizing him and his successors as rulers of Constantinople in the eyes of the West. [66] In the end, Andronikos II's fourth son (in order to not jeopardize the line of succession),[67] Theodore, was chosen to travel to Montferrat, arriving there in 1306. [90] The earliest record of John's existence other than Theodore's tombstone are the writings of the Greek scholar Leo Allatius, who wrote in 1648, too late for his works to be considered independent evidence. [23] Constantine also sent desperate pleas for aid to Western Europe, though little help ever arrived. [47], Although the imperial dynasty went extinct in the male line, descendants of the Palaiologan emperors survived for centuries through the lineages of various daughters. [1] Despite their de facto submission under the Ottomans, the Byzantines continued to act with hostility against them. The Empress Helena, acting … [79] Many of the non-imperial Byzantine Palaiologoi were part of the nobility and served as generals or powerful landowners. Disputes between John V's mother Anna of Savoy and the Patriarch John XIV on one side and Andronikos III's friend and megas domestikos John Kantakouzenos on the other led to a new and devastating civil war, lasting until 1347 and won by John Kantakouzenos, who became senior co-emperor as John VI. 1908 and his wife Helena until nine years into his reign, upon the appointment of Patriarch I. To have garnered an impressive reputation When Yolande 's brother, John I of until... 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